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ジュニアアルペン競技とスキー全般についての情報ブログです。

「アルペンスキーの成績に関係する要因」を検討した論文

「アルペンスキーの成績に関係する要因」を検討した論文

こんな感じで検索してみました。(笑)

PubMedにすべて網羅されているとも思えないですし、落ちているものも多いと思いますが、(専門ではないので)ご容赦を。

念のため、下の引用文は「抄録(アブストラクト)」と呼ばれている論文の「要約」です。

一般的には、まず抄録を見て、読みたいと思う論文があった場合、大学図書館などに行って、文献複写を申し込みます。

そこの図書館にない場合でも、(提携している)日本のどこかの図書館に雑誌があれば、コピーを取り寄せてもらうことができます。

文献を探すには、下の例では、赤字にしてある情報を控えていくと見つけやすいと思います。


J Strength Cond Res. 2010 Apr;24(4):1007-12.

The physical and anthropometric profiles of adolescent alpine skiers and their relationship with sporting rank.

Emeterio CA, González-Badillo JJ.


Source
Spanish Winter Sports Federation, Madrid, Spain. carlosalvarez19@telefonica.net

Abstract
The aim of this work was to determine the somatotype of national-level adolescent Spanish skiers, to establish the maximum strength and anaerobic power of their legs, and to examine the relationship between these variables and their national ranks. The study subjects were 31 adolescents skiers, of whom 15 were girls and 16 boys; all were 13-16 years old. Their percentage body fat and muscular mass were recorded, as was their ability to jump (countermovement jump [CMJ]), the strength and power of their legs (squat test), and their anaerobic power (Wingate and continuous jump [CMJ30''] tests). The mesomorphic somatotype was the most common among the boys, whereas the endomesomorphic somatotype was the most common among the girls. In the boys, sporting rank was significantly correlated with muscular mass (rs = 0.70; p = 0.003), with the CMJ and CMJ30'' (rs = 0.67; p < 0.01, and rs = 0.59; p < 0.05, respectively), and with the mean power and maximum dynamic strength in the squat test (rs = 0.59; p = 0.017). No such relationships were seen for the girls. None of the Wingate test variables, except for mean power (in the boys only; rs = 0.55; p < 0.05), correlated with sporting rank. The results suggest that power, as measured by the CMJ and CMJ30'', and the strength and power of the legs, as measured by the squat test, are associated with the sporting success of male skiers but not of female skiers. Power, as measured by the Wingate test, cannot be used to predict the performance of either sex.

PMID: 20300026 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Eur J Appl Physiol. 2010 Aug;109(6):1077-86. Epub 2010 Apr 4.

Block training periodization in alpine skiing: effects of 11-day HIT on VO2max and performance.

Breil FA, Weber SN, Koller S, Hoppeler H, Vogt M.

Source
Institute of Anatomy, University of Bern, Baltzerstrasse 2, 3000, Bern 9, Switzerland. fabio.breil@ana.unibe.ch

Abstract
Attempting to achieve the high diversity of training goals in modern competitive alpine skiing simultaneously can be difficult and may lead to compromised overall adaptation. Therefore, we investigated the effect of block training periodization on maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) and parameters of exercise performance in elite junior alpine skiers. Six female and 15 male athletes were assigned to high-intensity interval (IT, N = 13) or control training groups (CT, N = 8). IT performed 15 high-intensity aerobic interval (HIT) sessions in 11 days. Sessions were 4 x 4 min at 90-95% of maximal heart rate separated by 3-min recovery periods. CT continued their conventionally mixed training, containing endurance and strength sessions. Before and 7 days after training, subjects performed a ramp incremental test followed by a high-intensity time-to-exhaustion (tlim) test both on a cycle ergometer, a 90-s high-box jump test as well as countermovement (CMJ) and squat jumps (SJ) on a force plate. IT significantly improved relative VO2max by 6.0% (P < 0.01; male +7.5%, female +2.1%), relative peak power output by 5.5% (P < 0.01) and power output at ventilatory threshold 2 by 9.6% (P < 0.01). No changes occurred for these measures in CT. tlim remained unchanged in both groups. High-box jump performance was significantly improved in males of IT only (4.9%, P < 0.05). Jump peak power (CMJ -4.8%, SJ -4.1%; P < 0.01), but not height decreased in IT only. For competitive alpine skiers, block periodization of HIT offers a promising way to efficiently improve VO2max and performance. Compromised explosive jump performance might be associated with persisting muscle fatigue.

PMID: 20364385 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009 Nov;41(11):2084-9.

Seasonal variation of VO 2 max and the VO2-work rate relationship in elite Alpine skiers.

Gross MA, Breil FA, Lehmann AD, Hoppeler H, Vogt M.

Source
Institute for Anatomy, University of Bern, Switzerland.

Abstract
PURPOSE:
Alpine ski performance relates closely to both anaerobic and aerobic capacities. During their competitive season, skiers greatly reduce endurance and weight training, and on-snow training becomes predominant. To typify this shift, we compared exhaustive ramp cycling and squat (SJ) and countermovement jumping (CMJ) performance in elite males before and after their competitive season.

RESULTS:
In postseason compared with preseason: 1) maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2 max) normalized to bodyweight was higher (55.2 +/- 5.2 vs 52.7 +/- 3.6 mL x kg(-1) x min(-1), P < 0.01), but corresponding work rate (W) was unchanged; 2) at ventilatory thresholds (VT), absolute and relative work rates were similar but heart rates were lower; 3) VO2/W slope was greater (9.59 +/- 0.6 vs 9.19 +/- 0.4 mL O2 x min(-1) x W(-1), P = 0.02), with similar flattening (P < 0.01) above V T1 at both time points; and 4) jump height was greater in SJ (47.4 +/- 4.4 vs 44.7 +/- 4.3 cm, P < 0.01) and CMJ (52.7 +/- 4.6 vs 50.4 +/- 5.0 cm, P < 0.01).

DISCUSSION:
We believe that aerobic capacity and leg power were constrained in preseason and that improvements primarily reflected an in-season recovery from a fatigued state, which was caused by incongruous preseason training. Residual adaptations to high-altitude exposure in preseason could have also affected the results. Nonetheless, modern alpine skiing seemingly provides an ample cardiovascular training stimulus for skiers to maintain their aerobic capacities during the racing season.

CONCLUSIONS:
We conclude that aerobic fitness and leg explosiveness can be maintained in-season but may be compromised by heavy or excessive preseason training. In addition, ramp test V O2/W slope analysis could be useful for monitoring both positive and negative responses to training.

PMID: 19812507 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Sports Med. 1988 Oct;6(4):210-21.

Physiology of Alpine skiing.

Andersen RE, Montgomery DL.

Source
Gray Rocks Inn Ski Resort, Mont Tremblant, Quebec, Canada.

Abstract
Physiological profiles of elite Alpine skiers reveal the importance of muscular strength, anaerobic power, anaerobic endurance, aerobic endurance, coordination, agility, balance, and flexibility. On-hill snow training and dryland training programmes should focus on the elevation of these fitness components. Physical characteristics of elite skiers reveal an average height and body mass. Today, successful skiers are taller and heavier than their predecessors. Slalom skiers tend to be leaner than skiers in other events while the downhill racers are the heaviest. Elite skiers have strong legs when peak torque is measured during isometric and isokinetic conditions involving knee extension, which may be a specific adaptation since the skier is in a crouched position for a prolonged period when racing. Leg strength correlates significantly with performance in the downhill and giant slalom events. The glycolytic contribution in the slalom and giant slalom events is about 40% of the total energy cost. Following a race, blood lactate concentration averages 9 to 13 mmol/L. A muscle lactate concentration of 24 mmol/kg wet muscle tissue has been reported. Elite skiers have higher lactate values than advanced or novice skiers. The aerobic demands of competitive Alpine skiing may approach (90 to 95%) of the athlete's maximal aerobic power. Maximal heart rate is achieved during the latter part of the race. Elite skiers have a high VO2max. This may reflect their training programme and not the actual demands of the sport. When turning, muscular activity acts to impede blood flow and oxygen delivery. As a consequence, anaerobic metabolism is increased. Glycogen studies show significant utilisation from both slow and fast twitch muscle fibres. Skilled and unskilled skiers differ with respect to glycogen utilisation. Skilled skiers have greater glycogen depletion in the slow twitch fibres compared to unskilled skiers. Muscle glycogen decreases by about 32 mmol/kg wet muscle tissue following a day of ski training. Glycogen depletion may contribute to the injury pattern which peaks toward the end of the ski day. The risk of injury has been estimated at 17 injuries per 1000 skier days. When the severity criterion was an injury causing the skier to miss 3 days of skiing or visit a physician, the risk was 2 injuries per 1000 skier-days.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

PMID: 3067309 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1980;12(3):153-8.

Characteristics of elite male and female ski racers.

Haymes EM, Dickinson AL.

Abstract
Fifty-four members of the U.S. Ski Team who competed in the alpine, cross-country, or Nordic combined events were studied to learn more about the characteristics of elite ski racers in each of the events. Variables examined were percent body fatness, maximal oxygen uptake, maximal ventilation, isometric knee extension strength, power, agility, balance, and response time. In addition, isokinetic knee extension strength and endurance were measured on the alpine skiers. Cross-country skiers had higher Vo2max adjusted for weight or lean body weight than alpine skiers of the same sex. Male skiers had larger VO2max with or without adjustments for weight or lean body weight than female skiers in the same events. Alpine skiers had significantly more isometric knee extension strength (males = 3078 N, females = 2194 N) and power during the Margaria-Kalamen stair run (males = 1791 W, females = 1131 W) than cross-country skiers of the same sex. Differences in isokinetic knee extension strength at slow rates of contraction (30 degrees/s) between male and female alpine skiers were not significant when strength was expressed as strength x kg LBW-1. Male alpine skiers produced more power and had more isokinetic leg strength x kg LBW-1 at high contraction rates (180 degrees/s) than female alpine skiers.

PMID: 7402049 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1983;15(6):491-5.

Characteristics of national, divisional, and club male alpine ski racers.

Brown SL, Wilkinson JG.

Abstract
Forty-two Canadian male alpine ski racers of either club, divisional, or national team status were studied by group to evaluate the physiological parameters that distinguish these athletes. Measurements of physical characteristics, flexibility, muscular power and endurance, aerobic and anaerobic power, and isokinetic leg strength were made. Correlations of the test variables were performed to evaluate the test battery for validity. While there were few physiological differences between the national and divisional skiers, club skiers scored consistently lower (P less than 0.01) in maximum number of sit-ups, vertical jump, anaerobic endurance, muscular power, 2-mile run time, isokinetic leg strength at 30 degrees X s-1, and hamstring-to-quadriceps strength ratio. However, no significant differences between groups were observed in sum of the skinfolds, flexibility, and isokinetic strength at 180 degrees X s-1. There were also no differences in VO2max between club and national team skiers. Highly-significant correlations were found between selected test variables, which indicated that some of the physiological parameters shared common variance. It seems that many of these physiological tests do not discriminate between national and divisional skiers. Club skiers would, however, appear to benefit from training programs designed to develop leg strength, power, and anaerobic endurance.

PMID: 6656558 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Sports Med. 1993 Mar;15(3):170-8.

Physiological aspects and injury in elite Alpine skiers.

White AT, Johnson SC.

Source
Department of Exercise and Sport Science, University of Utah, Salt Lake City.
Abstract
Alpine skiing requires aerobic and anaerobic power, muscular strength, and a variety of complex motor abilities including quickness, agility, balance and coordination. There is evidence of variability in physical characteristics between skiers of different events. Generally, successful alpine competitors are taller and heavier than in the past. Greater size, specifically lean mass, may be related to technique changes because of the advent of breakaway poles. Aerobic power, although important, does not discriminate competitors of varying ability categories. Aerobic power is more likely to be a result of conditioning for alpine skiing rather than a profound requirement of the sport. Anaerobic power is important for skiing and both laboratory and field power tests correlate well with performance. Tests that measure explosive and sustained anaerobic power such as the Wingate, vertical jump, 60-second repeated jump, and Margaria-Kalamen stair run are valuable in assessing skiers. On-snow lactate and oxygen consumption measurements further substantiate the need for high anaerobic power. Alpine skiers have very high leg strength compared with other athletes. Isokinetic testing has been used to evaluate dynamic leg strength in skiers, but little is known about high speed dynamic or eccentric strength capabilities. A new mechanism of knee injury that is associated with tibial acceleration has been identified in competitive alpine skiers. A release binding that is sensitive to physiological factors in addition to release forces should be developed. Strength profiling of skiers may also be valuable in evaluating injury risk.

PMID: 8451549 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Sports Med. 2011 Mar 1;41(3):221-32. doi: 10.2165/11538560-000000000-00000.

Balance ability and athletic performance.

Hrysomallis C.

Source
Institute of Sport, Exercise and Active Living, School of Sport and Exercise Science, Victoria University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Con.Hrysomallis@vu.edu.au

Abstract
The relationship between balance ability and sport injury risk has been established in many cases, but the relationship between balance ability and athletic performance is less clear. This review compares the balance ability of athletes from different sports, determines if there is a difference in balance ability of athletes at different levels of competition within the same sport, determines the relationship of balance ability with performance measures and examines the influence of balance training on sport performance or motor skills. Based on the available data from cross-sectional studies, gymnasts tended to have the best balance ability, followed by soccer players, swimmers, active control subjects and then basketball players. Surprisingly, no studies were found that compared the balance ability of rifle shooters with other athletes. There were some sports, such as rifle shooting, soccer and golf, where elite athletes were found to have superior balance ability compared with their less proficient counterparts, but this was not found to be the case for alpine skiing, surfing and judo. Balance ability was shown to be significantly related to rifle shooting accuracy, archery shooting accuracy, ice hockey maximum skating speed and simulated luge start speed, but not for baseball pitching accuracy or snowboarding ranking points. Prospective studies have shown that the addition of a balance training component to the activities of recreationally active subjects or physical education students has resulted in improvements in vertical jump, agility, shuttle run and downhill slalom skiing. A proposed mechanism for the enhancement in motor skills from balance training is an increase in the rate of force development. There are limited data on the influence of balance training on motor skills of elite athletes. When the effectiveness of balance training was compared with resistance training, it was found that resistance training produced superior performance results for jump height and sprint time. Balance ability was related to competition level for some sports, with the more proficient athletes displaying greater balance ability. There were significant relationships between balance ability and a number of performance measures. Evidence from prospective studies supports the notion that balance training can be a worthwhile adjunct to the usual training of non-elite athletes to enhance certain motor skills, but not in place of other conditioning such as resistance training. More research is required to determine the influence of balance training on the motor skills of elite athletes.
© 2011 Adis Data Information BV. All rights reserved.
PMID: 21395364 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2011 Dec;21(6):e72-81. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0838.2010.01159.x. Epub 2010 Jul 6.

Mechanical parameters as predictors of performance in alpine World Cup slalom racing.

Supej M, Kipp R, Holmberg HC.

Source
Department of Biomechanics, Faculty of Sport, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Abstract
The aims of the present study were to develop a method for classifying slalom skiing performance and to examine differences in mechanical parameters. Eighteen elite skiers were recorded with three-dimensional kinematical measurements and thereafter divided into a higher (HP) and lower performance group, using the ratio between the difference in mechanical energy divided by the mass of the skier and section entrance velocity (Δe(mech)/v(in)). Moreover, the skiers' velocity (v), acceleration (a), center of mass turn radii (R(CM)) and skis' turn radii (R(AMS)), ground reaction forces (GRF) and differential specific mechanical energy [diff(e(mech))] were calculated. v and diff(e(mech)) were different between the performance groups (P<0.001 and <0.05), while no inter-group differences in R(CM), R(AMS), a and GRF were observed. A relationship between R(AMS) and diff(e(mech)) was demonstrated (r=0.58; P<0.001). The highest GRFs were related to the lowest diff(e(mech)) and a was related to GRF (r=-0.60; P<0.001). The Δe(mech)/v(in) predicted the performance over short course sections. The HP skiers skied with a higher v and a similar range of diff(e(mech)). We suggest that shortest R(AMS) and the highest GRFs should be reduced in elite slalom in order to increase performance.

© 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

PMID: 20626704 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


J Appl Biomech. 2008 May;24(2):121-9.

Differential specific mechanical energy as a quality parameter in racing alpine skiing.

Supej M.

Source
Faculty of Sport, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Abstract
An important question in alpine skiing is how to determine characteristics of well-performed ski turns, an issue that has become more crucial with the arrival of new carving skis. This article introduces a new method for estimating the quality of skiing at each point of observation based on mechanical energy behavior that can be measured using established motion analysis techniques. It can be used for single or multiple-skier analyses for evaluation of skiing technique as well as racing tactics. An illustration of its use is shown by analyzing 16 top-level racers using a 3-D kinematical system and video recorded during an alpine ski world cup race. Based on energy behavior of several racers, it is demonstrated that the most direct line with shortest radius of turn is not necessarily the most effective strategy in contrast to what some coaches believe.
PMID: 18579904 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2009 Apr;19(2):206-12. Epub 2008 Feb 6.

Competitive and seasonal oxidative stress in elite alpine ski racers.

Schippinger G, Fankhauser F, Abuja PM, Winklhofer-Roob BM, Nadlinger K, Halwachs-Baumann G, Wonisch W.

Source
Department of Traumatology, University Medical Center, Graz, Austria. gert@schippinger.com

Abstract
We investigated competitive- and long-term oxidative stress during a competition season in eight top-ranked members of the Austrian Men's Alpine Ski Team. Serum total peroxides, antibody titers against oxidized LDL (oLAb) and lag time of the degradation of the fluorophore 1-palmitoyl-2-((2-(4-(6-phenyl-trans-1,3,5-hexatrienyl)phenyl)ethyl)-carbonyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine were measured, along with plasma concentrations of ascorbate, alpha- and gamma-tocopherol, beta-carotene, uric acid and the lipid status. Competitive stress was indicated through an increased post-race uric acid level (286 +/- 50 microM pre-race vs 456 +/- 77 microM post-race, P<0.001) in December. Long-term effects were already apparent in November, with the highest concentrations of total peroxides (680 +/- 458 microM H(2)O(2) equivalents vs December 47 +/- 58 microM H(2)O(2) equivalents and January 15 +/- 28 microM H(2)O(2) equivalents, P<0.001) and a concomitant decrease in oLAb titers with an antibody trough in December (439 +/- 150 mU/mL vs baseline 1036 +/- 328 mU/mL; P=0.003). In January, after recovery, they attained nearly pre-season levels of oxidative stress biomarkers. This study indicates midseason oxidative stress in top-level skiers, which was associated with the performance in these athletes.
PMID: 18266792 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2008 Dec;18(6):790-7. Epub 2008 Feb 2.

Impact of skier actions on the gliding times in alpine skiing.

Federolf P, Scheiber P, Rauscher E, Schwameder H, Lüthi A, Rhyner HU, Müller E.

Source
Christian Doppler Laboratory Biomechanics in Skiing, University of Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria. peter.federolf@kin.ucalgary.ca

Abstract
Alpine ski races are typically won by fractions of a second. It is therefore essential for ski racers to minimize air drag as well as ski-snow friction. In contrast to air drag, ski-snow friction during actual skiing has rarely been investigated so far. Two tasks, forward/backward leaning and edging of the skis, were selected, which (a) were expected to have an impact on ski-snow friction, and (b) could be executed while gliding in tucked position. Two hypotheses were tested: (H1) Run times are affected by forward or backward leaning. (H2) Run times are affected by edging of the skis. Four professional ski testers were recruited, who conducted a total of 68 runs of straight gliding. Execution of the tasks was documented by video recordings and by measuring the force application point on the skis of one tester. The findings of this study support (H2) but not (H1). There are indications that the increased run times for edging are caused by increased ski-snow friction. From a performance point of view, it seems beneficial for ski racers to minimize edging in the gliding sections of a race.
PMID: 18248548 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Int J Sports Med. 2003 Nov;24(8):571-5.

Physical and physiological factors associated with success in professional alpine skiing.

Neumayr G, Hoertnagl H, Pfister R, Koller A, Eibl G, Raas E.

Source
Institute of Sports Medicine and Cardiovascular Medicine, University Clinics of Innsbruck, Austria. guenther.neumayr@sb-bruneck.it

Abstract
Scientific data on the physiological profile of world class skiers are sparse. During the last decade the Austria Ski Team was the most successful in the world. It was the objective of this study to describe the physical and physiological characteristics of World Cup (WC) skiers. Twenty female and 28 male members of the Austrian WC Ski Team were examined pre- and post-seasonally from 1997 to 2000. Physical parameters such as age, height, body mass, body mass index, percent body fat and thigh circumference were recorded from each athlete. The physiological variables investigated consisted in the aerobic power and in the muscle strength of the lower limbs. Racing performance was defined by the WC ranking position. The athlete's aerobic performance capacity was assessed by maximal exercise testing on a bicycle ergometer, and the isokinetic muscle strength of the knee extensor and flexor muscles by the use of a computer-interfaced dynamometer. From 1997 to 2000 about half (48 %; n = 106) of all alpine WC racing events (n = 221) were won by the athletes investigated. The typical world class skier is in the mid-twenties (25.2 y [female]; 27.6 y [male]). The mean values for height were 1.66 m (female) vs. 1.81 m (male), for body mass 65.1 kg (female) vs. 87 kg (male) and for the percentage of body fat 24.5 % (female) vs. 15.8 % (male). The maximum power output was 4.3 +/- 0.4 (female ) and 4.7 +/- 0.4 W/kg (male), the corresponding values for VO(2)max were 55 +/- 3.5 (female) and 60 +/- 4.7 ml/kg/min (male). The maximal values for peak torque and work for knee extension amounted to 206 +/- 21 (female) and 334 +/- 43 Nm (male), and 2690 +/- 364 (female) and 4414 +/- 629 J (male), respectively. In both sexes there were neither significant laterality nor dysbalance. The hamstring/quadriceps ratios were between 0.57 - 0.60. Among all physical and physiological variables, only the aerobic power in males was found to be strongly correlated (r = 0.947; p = 0.001 for W (max); r = 0.964; p < 0.001 for VO(2)max) to racing performance. The study proves the practical experience that success in professional alpine skiing is not related to single physiological variables. Two main factors, however, are crucial, i. e. high levels of aerobic power and muscle strength.
Comment in
Is aerobic power really critical for success in alpine skiing? [Int J Sports Med. 2006]
PMID: 14598192 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


J Sports Sci. 2003 Sep;21(9):679-92.

Biomechanical aspects of new techniques in alpine skiing and ski-jumping.

Müller E, Schwameder H.

Source
Institute of Sport Science, University of Salzburg, Akademiestr. 26, A-5020 Salzburg, Austria. erich.mueller@sbg.ac.at

Abstract
There have been considerable changes in equipment design and movement patterns in the past few years both in alpine skiing and ski-jumping. These developments have been matched by methods of analysing movements in field conditions. They have yielded new insights into the skills of these specific winter sports. Analytical techniques have included electromyography, kinetic and kinematic methods and computer simulations. Our aim here is to review biomechanical research in alpine skiing and ski-jumping. We present in detail the techniques currently used in alpine skiing (carving technique) and ski-jumping (V-technique), primarily using data from the authors' own research. Finally, we present a summary of the most important results in biomechanical research both in alpine skiing and ski-jumping. This includes an analysis of specific conditions in alpine skiing (type of turn, terrain, snow, speed, etc.) and the effects of equipment, materials and individual-specific abilities on performance, safety and joint loading in ski-jumping.
PMID: 14579866 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001 Feb;33(2):232-6.

Hemoglobin/myoglobin oxygen desaturation during Alpine skiing.

Szmedra L, Im J, Nioka S, Chance B, Rundell KW.

Source
Bloomsburg University of Pennsylvania, Bloomsburg, PA, USA.

Abstract

PURPOSE:
To investigate muscle blood volume (BV) change and hemoglobin/myoglobin oxygen desaturation (OD) during simulated giant slalom (GS) and slalom (SL) Alpine ski racing.
METHODS:
Joint angle, BV, OD, and heart rate (HR) were evaluated during GS and SL events in 30 junior elite skiers ages 9--17 yr (13.5 +/- 2.3). Subjects were stratified by ski class and age: group I, J1 and J2, ages 15--18 yr (16.8 +/- 0.8); group II, J3, 13--14 yr (13.6 +/- 0.7); and group III, J4 and J5, 9--12 yr (11.5 +/- 1.2). Near-infrared spectrophotometry (NIRS) was used to measure BV and OD in the capillary bed of the vastus lateralis during trials. Maximal OD was determined during thigh cuff ischemia (CI). Quadriceps cross-sectional area (CSA) was estimated by skin-fold and thigh circumference.
RESULTS:
Joint angles were smaller (P < 0.05) during GS than SL for ankle (83.8 +/- 11.9 degrees; 98.6 +/- 15.7 degrees ), knee (107.4 +/- 14.9 degrees; 118.3 +/- 18.0 degrees ), and hip (98.8 +/- 14.3 degrees; 107.5 +/- 16.2 degrees ). BV reduction from rest to peak exercise (Delta BV) was 30% greater (P < 0.05) during the GS than SL, whereas Delta OD was 33% greater (P < 0.05) during GS. Delta OD, relative to CI OD, was greater for all subjects during GS (79.2 +/- 3.7%) than SL (65.7 +/- 4.4%). This pattern continued within groups; group II displayed the greatest relative desaturation (82.9 +/- 7.6%). CSA was larger in older skiers (92.5 +/- 21.6; 72.5 +/- 12.3; 65.3 +/- 21.2 cm(2)) and correlated with Delta OD (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSION:
The larger reduction in BV (Delta BV change) and greater OD when skiers assumed lower posture during GS than SL may be related to greater effective static load secondary to higher percent of maximal voluntary contraction and is consistent with compromised blood flow to working muscle.
PMID: 11224811 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1999 Jul;31(7):1065-7.

Muscle control in elite alpine skiing.

Berg HE, Eiken O.

Source
Department of Orthopedic Surgery at Daderyd Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Abstract
PURPOSE:
The purpose of this study was to determine whether muscle control may be influenced by accelerative forces brought about by the downhill displacement of body mass in combination with the sharp turns during alpine skiing.
METHODS:
Sixteen elite skiers performed either super G (SG), giant slalom (GS), slalom (SL), or freestyle mogul (FM) skiing. Knee and hip joint angles and electromyographic (EMG) activity of the knee extensors were recorded.
RESULTS:
During the course of a turn, the minimum (deepest stance position) knee angle of the outside (main load-bearing) leg ranged from 60 degrees to 100 degrees, where the smallest angle was obtained in the FM event. Among the traditional alpine disciplines, smaller knee angles were obtained in the high-speed events (i.e., knee angle: SGCONCLUSIONS:
We believe these results have important implications for the design of specific training models.
PMID: 10416571 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Res Q Exerc Sport. 2012 Mar;83(1):86-93.

Differences in motor imagery time when predicting task duration in alpine skiers and equestrian riders.

Louis M, Collet C, Champely S, Guillot A.

Source
Mental Processes and Motor Performance Department, University of Lyon.

Abstract
Athletes' ability to use motor imagery (MI) to predict the speed at which they could perform a motor sequence has received little attention. In this study, 21 alpine skiers and 16 equestrian riders performed MI based on a prediction of actual performance time (a) after the course inspection, (b) before the start, and (c) after the actual performance. MI and physical times were similar in expert skiers during each imagery session, while novice skiers and novice and expert riders underestimated the actual course duration. These findings provide evidence that the temporal accuracy of an imagery task prediction depends on the performer's expertise level and characteristics of the motor skill.
PMID: 22428415 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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FISワールドカップ
SAJ公認大会(11/20現在)
ナスター公認大会
(参)FIS開催大会のカテゴリー

<2014-15 主要大会>
2月5-8日
全国中学校スキー大会(大鰐温泉)
2月6-10日
全国高校スキー大会(花輪)
2月20-23日
ぐんま冬国体スキー大会(尾瀬岩鞍)
2月26-28日
全日本Jrスキー選手権大会(雫石)
3月7-8日
ナスタージャパンカップ(苗場)
3月17-20日
全日本スキー選手権大会(苗場)
3月27-30日
ジュニアオリンピック(ほおのき平)

<アルペン・マニュアル>
YOUTH AND CHILDREN'S SEMINAR
正しい育成方針とは何だろう?
アルペンレーサーとして成功するには?
米国・ジュニア育成の取り組みの凄さ
米国・アルペンジュニア育成マニュアル
The USSA Training Systems (1)
The USSA Training Systems (2)
The USSA Training Systems (3)
The USSA Training Systems (4)
The USSA Training Systems (5)
SkillsQuest (1) 概要
SkillsQuest (2) Why SkillsQuest?
SkillsQuest (3) Activities by Phase
SkillsQuest (4) Skiing Skills Assessment
SkillsQuest (5) Conditioning Assessment
SkillsQuest (6) Pressure動画
SkillsQuest (7) Edging動画
SkillsQuest (8) Rotary動画
SkillsQuest (9) Balance動画
SkillsQuest Resorces
Afton Alps, USSA, SkillsQuest HD
米国・アルペンコーチングマニュアル
カナダ・アルペンジュニア育成マニュアル
カナダ・ジュニア育成マニュアル (1)
カナダ・ジュニア育成マニュアル (2)
カナダ・Drills and Exercises

<トピックス>
スキー滑走の「許容範囲」と「基準範囲」
クロスカントリースキーでアルペン
Loveland Ski Club Fall Lane Training
サーバント・リーダーシップとは
Rusutsu SuperNatural
Ligety vs. Hirscher- Solden 2014 2nd run
Rob Heule 凄いし、笑えます。
「上手くつなぐ」「滑らせる」
リゲティのミスの原因
Training videos from Shiffrin
「内足・外足荷重」と「意識と現実」
BMA: Tips with Mikaela Shiffrin
学校教育の中のアルペン競技
SJ 2014.10月号を読んで
朝日も謝罪しましたね。で、スキー界は?
2014南アフリカFISレース初開催
THE SKIER'S MANIFEST
ナスターレース協会:セミナー
シフリン:オフトレ
岩谷:世界の扉を開ける鍵
最近は、「スキーをたわます」ばかり。
ウィスラーカップで見えたチルドレンの課題
Warner Nickerson引退
ボン ベイルチケット売り場で働
Pharell Williams - Happy
競技における結果主義と過程主義
アルペン タレント発掘事業報告書
オリンピック選手に学ぶやり遂げる力
リゲティの内足ターン
多様性のためのトレーニング集
Carving vs. Stivoting
テッド・リゲティ 滑りの分析
P&G Thank You, Mom
SL 古い滑りと新しい滑り
シフリン 滑りの分析
無作為の罪
スポーツトライアングル 湯淺直樹
外向傾、外脚荷重、腰高姿勢は基本です。
ヘルメットの限界
最近のベース作り
ストックについて
脳損傷からの回復:アルブレヒト
基礎スキーの役割
Matteo Marsagliaの育ち方
木村公宣さんの滑走フォーム
ALPINE ROCKFEST:ミラー選手の360
Who Is Bode Miller?
Meet ski racer, Pinturault
Snowstars Level 1~Level 7
ボード・ミラーの育ち方
BLINK OF AN EYE
Be a Better Skier!
ジュニア時代に身につけるべき技術の基本
Lindsey Vonn's Top 5 Training Tips
Ted Ligety | P&G Thank You, Mom
シフリンの育ち方
クーシュ 大失敗
Shiffrinのキャプチャー画像
内足、外足、1本足?
Mikaela Shiffrin in Beaver Creek GS
新型ドローンによる練習動画
P&G オリンピアンを育てる ボン
P&G オリンピアンを育てる シフリン
アルペン関連の情報発信とその特徴
テッド・リゲティとは、何者なのか?
2014シーズンのマテリアル(SAJ)
見直される基本技術の大切さ
小学校低・中学年の正しい練習方法
佐藤久哉 vs 岡田利修「競技と基礎」
トッポリーノ大会優勝者のその後の活躍
ジュニアレーシング板、ブーツ選びの基準
ラディウス規制に関する個人的意見
「2010ウィスラーカップレポート」について
メンテナンスの手順
実践チューンナップ(安藤さん)
チューンナップ講習会(伊東裕樹さん)
スタートワックスの使い方(片岡さん)
大会のためのワックス選択
ワックス入門(本ブログの最初の記事)

<基礎練習動画>
BMA:Tips with Mikaela Shiffrin
子供に学ぶスキーの基本技術
Snow stars Lvel 1-6
Ski Racing Technical Drill for U12
Angulation and Pole Plant drill
U16 Fundamentals Camp
アルペンスキー基本練習
Ski Racing Drills
ジュニアがお手本にすべきWC選手は?
ミカエラ・シフリン トレーニング動画
ライヒのフリースキー動画
ヤンカのドリフト技術

<WC選手の滑り>
Mikaela Shiffrin wins first Giant Slalom
プレイバック 2014: Men's Slalom
Mikaera Shiffrin New Age 2014
Training European team
Hero GS Training
Hirscher & Shiffrin 2013/14
シフリン オーレの滑り
リゲティ クラニスカ・ゴラの滑り
ピントロー、リゲティ2013ダイジェスト
Ted Ligety training in Portillo 2012
Ted Ligety Training on Sochi GS Hill
Ted Ligety Amazing GS Run
カナダ女子SLトレーニング
リゲティGSフォームの分析
ピントロー、本人が選んだGS, SL, SG
2012 ソルデンWC男子GS完全版
2012 ソルデンWC女子GS2本目
2013世界選手権男子GSハイライト

<その他動画>
Didier Cuche, le come-back?
Felix Neureuthers Highspeed Orchestra
Alpine Skiing (Remi GAILLARD)
Bode Miller
The Best Of Sochi 2014 Olympics
Power combined with speed
総督閣下が新レギュレーションにお怒り
ボード・ミラー 面白?動画集
スビンダル9歳の滑り
ヒルシャー 16歳の滑り
ヒルシャー 14歳の滑り
Ligety - On The Quest For Glory
リゲティ GSフォームの変遷
GSスキー形状による滑走フォームの変遷
往年の名選手達の滑り

<スキー理論>
米国男子ヘッドコーチインタビュー1
米国男子ヘッドコーチインタビュー2
岩谷高峰「トレーニングを再考する」1
岩谷高峰「トレーニングを再考する」2
岩谷高峰「トレーニングを再考する」3
岩谷高峰「トレーニングを再考する」4
岩谷高峰「トレーニングを再考する」5
上林卓司「センターポジション」1
上林卓司「センターポジション」2
上林卓司「センターポジション」3
上林卓司「センターポジション」4

<技術解説本・DVD>
皆川賢太郎DVD
皆川賢太郎 スキー完全上達
皆川賢太郎 最速上達メソッド
浦木健太 GSテクニック
吉岡大輔 落とすGSテクニック
生田康宏 トップアルペンテクニック
竹節一夫 アルペンテクニック

<トレーニング論>
アスリート達は本当に速くなっている?
究極の鍛錬
俊敏性練習は、俊敏性を向上させるか?
「良いトレーニング、無駄なトレーニング」
「ゴールデンエイジ理論」の不思議
運動能力と遺伝、環境
筋収縮とエネルギー

<学ぶということ>
○科学的方法論
「仮説演繹法」再び。
アイスクリームを食べると、水死する?
科学的方法論のエッセンス
○学問のすすめ
米大学における多面的・総合的な評価
稲盛和夫「伸びる人、立派になる人、いらない人」
U.S. News Best Global Universities
いま注目されるリベラルアーツ教育
いちばんやさしい教える技術
人材育成の実践
新たな高等教育機関の制度化
快楽の人生、充実の人生、意味のある人生
全てリクルートから学んだ
創造性を発揮するには?
ノブレス・オブリージュ
大学入試成績と入学後の成績
修正版:博士が100人いる村
教えるということ
のめり込む力
ダニエル・ピンク:やる気に関する科学
ダン・アリエリー:仕事のやりがい
人間万事塞翁が馬:山中伸弥
人生はその時の最適解の積み重ね
量は質を生む
高い山を築くなら、裾野を大きく広げよう
最初の3年で仕事人生の大半が決まる説
根拠なき自信
ノブレス・オブリージュ
中高生のための勉強法
自分の頭で考え、勇気を持つこと。
頑張ったらご褒美があるメンタリティ
自浄作用
いじめについて
タイガーマザーと文武両道

<その他>
インプレッサ路肩から這い上がる
美味しいコーヒーの入れ方
身近なコーヒーあれこれ
スーパーで買える美味しいコーヒー
辞めたくても辞められない
外食産業が日本を滅ぼす?
シナノ:なつかし写真コンテスト
福井県立歴史博物館:昭和のくらし
解放値の計算

<大会ルール(和訳)>
FIS競技用品規格
アルペンスキー国際競技規則(2010-11)
同 決定事項及び指導事項(2010-11)
アルペンポイントルール(2010-11)

<ポイント関連>
ポイントとは?
SAJ ポイントリスト

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動画 (910)
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ワールドカップ・世界選手権など (501)
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スキー大会 (439)
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コーチングについて (6)
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ジュニアスキー

Author:ジュニアスキー
子供が小1の冬に家族でスキーを始め、すっかりその魅力にはまっております。小4から地元のスポーツ少年団に所属し、競技スキーを始めています。(現在中3)
ジュニアアルペン競技の情報ブログとしてスタートし、最近ではスキー全般、その他に関する話題も扱っています。
上欄のカテゴリから興味のある話題をお選び下さい。
(2009年7月25日開設)


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